Boris Davidovich Tartakovsky

Boris Davidovich Tartakovsky
(1911-1991)

 

Boris Davidovich Tartakovsky was born on March 14, 1911.

After he graduated from a worker's faculty in 1933 and from the Kiev Institute of Cinema Engineers in 1938, Tartakovsky began his scientific and engineering activity in the group of acousticians involved in the construction of the Palace of Soviets. At that time, the group carried out fundamental studies in architectural acoustics and acoustics of sound reinforcement.

The first research projects completed by Tartakovsky were concerned with the theoretical studies of sound reflection from the coating and the sound-absorbing layer of the spheroidal dome that should cover the Large hall of the Palace of Soviets.

Tartakovsky carried out experimental studies of distributed systems of acoustic radiators and their application in cinemas and for sound reinforcement in large halls or open spaces. These studies were pioneering, and their results have found wide application, specifically, in sound reinforcement systems used in large movie houses in the USSR and other countries and in the sound reinforcement system developed and installed by Tartakovsky in 1951 at the Exhibition of the Achievements of National Economy in Moscow.

During World War II, Tartakovsky worked at the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the supervision of Academician N.N. Andreyev. In 1941 - 1943, he was involved in the development of systems for protection against acoustic mines and in the design of the FIAN acoustic trawls. He actively participated in their testing and use at the Baltic fleet and Ladozhskaya and Volzhskaya flotillas. For his work during the war, Tartakovsky received a medal "For the Defence of Leningrad".

While working at the Acoustical laboratory of the Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Tartakovsky performed the studies of sound-focusing zone plates, acoustic lenses, and acoustic transitional (anti-reflection) layers. These studies formed the basis of his dissertation that was approved by the Scientific Council of FIAN in 1952 and resulted in his receiving the corresponding academic degree. At that time, Tartakovsky calculated the aberration of acoustic lenses, proposed a method of calculating the acoustic field near the focus in the presence of wave aberrations, and developed the theory of sound propagation in plane-layered media that was later generalized to the case of wave propagation in such one-dimensional structures as rods (longitudinal or shear waves), tubes, etc.

Simultaneously, Tartakovsky developed methods for the experimental studies of acoustic focusing systems, designed the corresponding equipment, and conducted subtle experiments on the focusing of ultrasonic waves (in the MHz frequency range). He also determined the limitations for the focusing of acoustic waves and estimated the range of focusing acoustic lenses and zone plates.

In 1953, Tartakovsky initiated the studies of vibration absorption that resulted in the development of a new method of noise and vibration control in industry and transportation.

Tartakovsky together with his colleagues developed new vibration-absorbing polymer materials (AGAT, VML-25, and other). These materials are successfully used to-day for reducing the noise level in various products, improving the operating environment in industry, and making the transport facilities more comfortable. The method and means of vibration absorption (the term "vibration absorption" was proposed by the author) gained wide recognition and, at the present time, they are widely used by many institutions and enterprises along with the conventional methods and means of sound and vibration insulation and damping both in Russia and in other countries.

Together with his students, Tartakovsky carried out comprehensive studies of vibration propagation and damping in elastic structures (plates, simple and reinforced shells, etc.) and noise generated by such vibrating structures in the surrounding medium.

For the development of the method and means of vibration absorption, Tartakovsky was awarded a Badge of Honor, a medal "For the Laborious Valor", and diplomas.

Tartakovsky was a pioneer in the development of active methods of noise and vibration control in the USSR. He was the first to apply the statistical methods for estimating the coupling vibration fields, vibration and sound fields, and propagation of vibrations along inhomogeneous structures.

Tartakovsky published more than 350 scientific papers, he is the author of 52 inventions.

Tartakovsky chaired the Section of Noise and Vibration of the Scientific Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on Acoustics, he also chaired the Commission on Noise and Vibration Control and was member of the presidium of the Committee on Environmental Problems of the Board of the Union of Scientific and Engineering Societies of the USSR. For years, he actively participated in the activities of various interdepartmental organizations working on the improvement of the acoustical environment in Moscow and other cities.

Since 1962, Tartakovsky gave lectures on acoustic noise and vibration. He educated 19 candidates of science.